Understanding the Blockchain Technology

Posted Posted in Computer technology, Innovations, Mobile Technology, Networking
Blockchain technology

Blockchain is a technology that make quick transactions on a network with no middlemen (e.g; banks).


How blockchain technology works

Basically, the blockchain is a chain of blocks with information. It uses cryptography to secure the data. This technology is an open distributed check. It can record transactions of two parties securely and efficiently. Moreover, Blockchain manages by peer-to-peer networking. It concurrently together to solve difficult mathematical problems in order to validate new blocks. Data can’t be update after recording. That’s why this technology secure and not vulnerable to hack.

Banking System and Blockchain Technology

Blockchain and banking technology

Blockchain technology is one of the intractable technologies of this age and will be of future technology. However, the idea of share checks existed for some time. So, Banks share their checks with financial institutions including banks. But the difference with private blockchain lies in decentralization.

Banking Systems characterizes by central banks, as, they operate in centralize system. Whereas, a private blockchain does not have a central authority and that’s why the system is decentralize.

Can Blockchain technology and banking system co-exist?

Centralized and decentralized

So, to understand, which one is the best one, it is important to see what the two situations offer.

  • The banking system exists for decades and it is therefore tried and tested. However, it also has its downsides such as slow and expensive transactions.
  • On the other hand, the private blockchain means there is very little regulation and thus opening doors for evils. For Example, money laundering, facilitating drug trafficking as well as funding terrorist activities.


powering our future
Powering Our Future

In short, both the banking system and blockchains have their strengths and weaknesses. So, there is the third option might be possible. It is the interdependence between privacy blockchain and the banking system. Additionally, it is something that has already started happening.

Developers are working on hybrid blockchains which feature a combination of public and private blockchains. So, that can be use by banks and other financial institutions to deliver financial services. One such example is Ripple’s (XRP) blockchain which facilitates rapid transactions and is also design to enable cross-border banking.

Public blockchains are known to be slow and expensive while private blockchains are previously criticize for encouraging the use of cryptocurrencies for illegal purposes. Hybrid blockchains are design to overcome these issues while also making it possible for the integration of blockchain technology into the banking system. Cryptocurrencies might, therefore, have a place in the future of the banking industry as banks and other traditional companies become more open-minded about the possibilities of digital currencies.

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The Weird Deep Web or Dark Web– Complete Knowledge

Posted Posted in Computer technology, Innovations, Networking, Security and Hacking
Deep web or dark web

Introduction-The Deep web is the part of internet that is not available or visible to search engines. It requires the use of an anonymizing browser Tor for accessing.

You’ve sometimes heard talk of the Dark web as a criminal activity- and no doubt -it is. Researchers classified the contents of 3,312 live dark web sites over a five-week period and found that 57% host illicit material.

The number of dark web or deep web listings . It is harmful and enterprise is rising by 20%. From here, you can buy credit card numbers, all manner of drugs, guns, counterfeit money, stolen credentials, hacked accounts as well as accounts that helps you to break into other’s computer. Moreover, you can hire hackers to attack computers for you. And you can buy username and passwords also.

Dark Web tools and services

The Into the web of profit report identifies 12 categories of tools or services that presents risks in the form of a network breach or data compromise:

  • Infection or attacks, including malware, distributed denial of services (DDoS) and botnets.
  • Access, including remote access trojans (RATs), keyloggers and exploits.
  • Espionge, including services, customization and targeting.
  • Support services such as tutorials.
  • Credentials
  • Phishing
  • Refunds
  • Customer data
  • Operational data
  • Financial data
  • Trade secrets
  • Other emerging threats

Deep Web browser

Deep web or dark web browser

All this activity, this vision of a bustling marketplace, might make you think that navigating the dark web is easy. It isn’t. The place is as messy and chaotic as you would expect when everyone is anonymous, and a substantial minority are out to scam others. 

Accessing the dark web requires the use of an anonymizing browser called Tor. The Tor browser routes your web page requests through a series of proxy servers operated by thousands of volunteers around the globe, rendering your IP address unidentifiable and untraceable. Tor works like magic, but the result is an experience that’s like the dark web itself: unpredictable, unreliable and maddeningly slow.

Still, for those willing to put up with the inconvenience, the dark web provides a memorable glimpse at the seamy underbelly of the human experience – without the risk of skulking around in a dark alley. 

Deep Web search engines

Dark web search engines exist, but even the best are challenged to keep up with the constantly shifting landscape. The experience is reminiscent of searching the web in the late 1990s. Even one of the best search engines, called Grams, returns results that are repetitive and often irrelevant to the query. Link lists like The Hidden Wiki are another option, but even indices also return a frustrating number of timed-out connections and 404 errors.

Dark web sites

Dark web sites look pretty much like any other site, but there are important differences. One is the naming structure. Instead of ending in .com or .co, dark web sites end in .onion. That’s “a special-use top level domain suffix designating an anonymous hidden service reachable via the Tor network,” according to Wikipedia. Browsers with the appropriate proxy can reach these sites, but others can’t.

Dark web sites also use a scrambled naming structure that creates URLs that are often impossible to remember. For example, a popular commerce site called Dream Market goes by the unintelligible address of “eajwlvm3z2lcca76.onion.”

Many dark websites are set up by scammers, who constantly move around to avoid the wrath of their victims. Even commerce sites that may have existed for a year or more can suddenly disappear if the owners decide to cash in and flee with the escrow money they’re holding on behalf of customers.

Law enforcement officials are getting better at finding and prosecuting owners of sites that sell illicit goods and services. In the summer of 2017, a team of cyber cops from three countries successfully shut down AlphaBay, the dark web’s largest source of contraband, sending shudders throughout the network. But many merchants simply migrated elsewhere.

The anonymous nature of the Tor network also makes it especially vulnerable to distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS), said Patrick Tiquet, Director of Security & Architecture at Keeper Security, and the company’s resident expert on the topic. “Sites are constantly changing addresses to avoid DDoS, which makes for a very dynamic environment,” he said. As a result, The quality of search varies widely, and a lot of material is outdated.

Is the dark web illegal?

We don’t want to leave you with the impression that everything on the dark web is nefarious or illegal. The Tor network began as an anonymous communications channel, and it still serves a valuable purpose in helping people communicate in environments that are hostile to free speech. A lot of people use it in countries where there’s eavesdropping or where internet access is criminalized.

If you want to learn all about privacy protection or cryptocurrency, the dark web has plenty to offer. There are a variety of private and encrypted email services, instructions for installing an anonymous operating system and advanced tips for the privacy-conscious.

There’s also material that you wouldn’t be surprised to find on the public web, such as links to full-text editions of hard-to-find books, collections of political news from mainstream websites and a guide to the steam tunnelsunder the Virginia Tech campus. You can conduct discussions about current events anonymously on Intel Exchange. There are several whistleblower sites, including a dark web version of Wikileaks. Pirate Bay, a BitTorrent site that law enforcement officials have repeatedly shut down, is alive and well there. Even Facebook has a dark web presence.

More and more legitimate web companies are starting to have presences there. It shows that they’re aware, they’re cutting edge and in the know.

There’s also plenty of practical value for some organizations. Law enforcement agencies keep an ear to the ground on the dark web looking for stolen data from recent security breaches that might lead to a trail to the perpetrators. Many mainstream media organizations monitor whistle blower sites looking for news.

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Cyber Security

Posted Posted in Computer technology, Innovations, Networking, Security and Hacking
cyber security

The process of protect the internet-connected system from unauthorized user or cyber attack known as Cyber Security or you can say it Computer Security

It actually includes hardware, software and electronic data. The main goal of Cyber Security is to prevent the hackers to hack or damage the data. Hardware and software including demoralize the services they allocate.

Why Cyber Security is Important?

The approach of illegal users becoming popular to sensitive data or information. Now a days, Internet is a risky place for all organizations as well as personals to share or safe the data. The important thing is that the persons with IT skills can steal the data easily they wants. Because the hacking tools are available at different sites by browsing because of hacking tutorials are available on websites. Moreover, A person having basic knowledge of security system can make approach to your system and can harm it. Actually, the Technology is increasing day-by-day. Therefore, the network security or cyber security is most important now a days. The administration should have the information about security mechanisms, risks, firewalls, antiviruses etc to secure the data or system from illegal use.

Why Security is importanr-Cyber security

Security Goals

There are three components to secure the data, information from unauthorized access

cyber security


Confidentiality means to have confident that no one can read my data. It is the concealment of data from third party.

For Example:

cyber security

Two persons texting via encrypted email and they know decryption keys of each other, so, they can read data by entering decryption keys. If third person read the keys when they entering, then the confidentiality of that email is compromised.


Integrity means to have trust that only authorized persons can update the data. It is defined as to prevent unauthorized users to improper changes to secured data or information.

Let Suppose, you are paying 10$ online, but your data would be change without your knowledge by sending 10000$. then you can lost highest amount.


Basically, the secured or encrypted data must be available to authorized users known as availability. Furthermore, Authorized persons should have access the data at the time they needed. If the right data will not available at right time, it would be harmful.

As, a hacker can access the web server of bank and put it down. The authenticated user wants to shift data by e-banking transfer then it would not be possible.

Cyber Security Services

The service use to enhancement the security of data/information transfers known as Security Services.

cyber security

Data Confidentiality

Data Confidentiality defines that the data and information you are sending is just available to you and the person you want to send the data. And no one else can read or change it during the transfer of data and information. So, it is secured with using encrypting algorithms and private keys, that cannot be available to any third  party use. If the third person read encrypted key when entering then the confidentiality of that email will compromised.

Data Integrity

Data Integrity means to have trust that the data and information is transferring or updating by authorized person only. It is the prevention of hackers or the third party to improper changes to the sensitive data and information. As, if you are sending the data will not be change or update by unknown person.

cyber security


It is the most important security service. Authentication means the protection of data from unknown user. If the data is transferring through internet, then it should be authenticate the authorized person by email and password. Moreover, It is the best way to authenticate or keep the data and information secure from unknown users.

cyber security

There are different applications use to authenticate the data.

  • Authentication Server
  • Routers
  • Switches
  • Hubs
  • Kerberos

Non Repudiation

Non repudiation means the assurance that  someone cannot refuse to something. Like, if you are contracting with another organization then you should have tangible evidence of data or their signatures on document. It is the authentication that can be said to be genuine with full confidence. As well as, the other person should not refuse his statement. Another example is

cyber security

Access Control

Access control means giving or providing the access of data to authorized users when they needed. The secured or encrypted data must be available to authorized users. So, If the right data will not available at right time, it would be harmful. As, a hacker can access the web server of bank and put it down. So, the authenticated user wants to shift data by e-banking transfer then it would not be possible.

Cyber Security Machanisms

Here are some security mechanisms to implement the security services. Keep reading, the First one and most important is


Encipherment is way of encryption of data . While transferring the data in encrypted way, the plain text encrypted with key and become encipher text. The code of encipher text is different from plain text. Plain text is the actual message, by using encryption algorithms it becomes encipher text, that cannot be understood by the hacker or third person. As well as the user at receiving point can decrypt it by using private key provided by sender and read the actual message. Therefore, it is the best security mechanism.

cyber security

Data Integrity

In encrypted emails, users have check value while sending or receiving the data. So, the security mechanism of data integrity match the check value of sender and receiver. If the check value matched of sender and receiver then the data will be decrypt otherwise it will not show the actual message.

Digital Signature

Digital signature is used to verify the data. It is the process to assure that the contents of message have not been changed or updated during transition. Additionally, when a server digitally sign a document, then it add one-hash encryption of message content using the pair of your public and private key. So, your client can still read it, but the process creates the signature that only decrypt with server’s public key. As, the client, using server’s public key, can then validate the sender as well as the integrity of message contents.

cyber security

Authentication Exchange

In security mechanism, authentication exchange is the process of verifying the actual sender and receiver. For Example, If we share the data through Bluetooth then it verifies the sender as well as receiver. The data is exchanged in the case of the address is matched and sender or receiver gives the permission to access the data.

Traffic Padding

Traffic Padding is the way of adding unwanted variables or data to confuse the hacker. When you are sharing sensitive data then add unwanted variables, if the hacker hacks the information then it would be useless for him and cannot understood by unauthorized person.

Routing controls

Routing control is the process of path the data at different routers to prevent the attacks. This mechanism is use to confuse the hacker when he attacks to steal the data and information or wants to improper changes.


Notarization is a three-part process that guarantees the parties of transactions that document is authentic and can be trusted. For Example, you pass the message to your friend through your other friend. It becomes three-part transaction within trusted and authentic people.

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