Distributed-Denial Of Service (DDoS)

Posted Posted in Mobile Technology

A distributed-denial of service attack in which multiple compromise computer systems attack a target.

It attack on server, website or other network resource.
The flood of incoming messages, connection requests, malformed packets to the target system.Almost, It force to slow down and shut down. Thereby denying service to legitimate users or system.

Distributed-denial of service attack carried out by diverse threat.Certainly, Ranging from individual criminal to organize crime rings and government agencies.

How it works

Distributed-denial of service assailant begin exploit a vulnerability in one computer system and make it Distributed-denial of service master.
The attackhttps://www.zaptox.com/cyber-security/ master system identify other vulnerable systems. Therefore, then gains control over them by infecting the systems. By using malware, through bypassing the authentication controls.
Above all, A computer device under the control of an intruder is zombie or bot.
Most noteworthy, When botnet is assemble the attacker use traffic generate by the compromise devices. Hence, flood the target domain and knock it offline.

Types of DDoS

There are three types of Distributed-denial of service attacks.

Network centric

Volumetric attack

Consequently, Protocol attacks target network layer or transport layer protocols using flaws in the protocols.Hence, overwhelm target resources. Probably, application layer attacks overload application services or database. Furthermore, The inundation of packets at the target causes a denial of service.

Prevention of Distributed-denial of service

Probably, most of the high company owners know about these attacks.So, that they can save their authorities.Seems like, they understand the threats and vulnerabilities.


  • Hereafter, In the US, denial-of-service attack may be consider federal crime. Under the computer fraud with penalties that include years of imprisonment.
  • Therefore, In European countries, committing criminal denial-of-service attacks lead to arrest.

Please follow and like us:

Cyber Security

Posted Posted in Computer technology, Innovations, Networking, Security and Hacking
cyber security

The process of protect the internet-connected system from unauthorized user or cyber attack known as Cyber Security or you can say it Computer Security

It actually includes hardware, software and electronic data. The main goal of Cyber Security is to prevent the hackers to hack or damage the data. Hardware and software including demoralize the services they allocate.

Why Cyber Security is Important?

The approach of illegal users becoming popular to sensitive data or information. Now a days, Internet is a risky place for all organizations as well as personals to share or safe the data. The important thing is that the persons with IT skills can steal the data easily they wants. Because the hacking tools are available at different sites by browsing because of hacking tutorials are available on websites. Moreover, A person having basic knowledge of security system can make approach to your system and can harm it. Actually, the Technology is increasing day-by-day. Therefore, the network security or cyber security is most important now a days. The administration should have the information about security mechanisms, risks, firewalls, antiviruses etc to secure the data or system from illegal use.

Why Security is importanr-Cyber security

Security Goals

There are three components to secure the data, information from unauthorized access

cyber security


Confidentiality means to have confident that no one can read my data. It is the concealment of data from third party.

For Example:

cyber security

Two persons texting via encrypted email and they know decryption keys of each other, so, they can read data by entering decryption keys. If third person read the keys when they entering, then the confidentiality of that email is compromised.


Integrity means to have trust that only authorized persons can update the data. It is defined as to prevent unauthorized users to improper changes to secured data or information.

Let Suppose, you are paying 10$ online, but your data would be change without your knowledge by sending 10000$. then you can lost highest amount.


Basically, the secured or encrypted data must be available to authorized users known as availability. Furthermore, Authorized persons should have access the data at the time they needed. If the right data will not available at right time, it would be harmful.

As, a hacker can access the web server of bank and put it down. The authenticated user wants to shift data by e-banking transfer then it would not be possible.

Cyber Security Services

The service use to enhancement the security of data/information transfers known as Security Services.

cyber security

Data Confidentiality

Data Confidentiality defines that the data and information you are sending is just available to you and the person you want to send the data. And no one else can read or change it during the transfer of data and information. So, it is secured with using encrypting algorithms and private keys, that cannot be available to any third  party use. If the third person read encrypted key when entering then the confidentiality of that email will compromised.

Data Integrity

Data Integrity means to have trust that the data and information is transferring or updating by authorized person only. It is the prevention of hackers or the third party to improper changes to the sensitive data and information. As, if you are sending the data will not be change or update by unknown person.

cyber security


It is the most important security service. Authentication means the protection of data from unknown user. If the data is transferring through internet, then it should be authenticate the authorized person by email and password. Moreover, It is the best way to authenticate or keep the data and information secure from unknown users.

cyber security

There are different applications use to authenticate the data.

  • Authentication Server
  • Routers
  • Switches
  • Hubs
  • Kerberos

Non Repudiation

Non repudiation means the assurance that  someone cannot refuse to something. Like, if you are contracting with another organization then you should have tangible evidence of data or their signatures on document. It is the authentication that can be said to be genuine with full confidence. As well as, the other person should not refuse his statement. Another example is

cyber security

Access Control

Access control means giving or providing the access of data to authorized users when they needed. The secured or encrypted data must be available to authorized users. So, If the right data will not available at right time, it would be harmful. As, a hacker can access the web server of bank and put it down. So, the authenticated user wants to shift data by e-banking transfer then it would not be possible.

Cyber Security Machanisms

Here are some security mechanisms to implement the security services. Keep reading, the First one and most important is


Encipherment is way of encryption of data . While transferring the data in encrypted way, the plain text encrypted with key and become encipher text. The code of encipher text is different from plain text. Plain text is the actual message, by using encryption algorithms it becomes encipher text, that cannot be understood by the hacker or third person. As well as the user at receiving point can decrypt it by using private key provided by sender and read the actual message. Therefore, it is the best security mechanism.

cyber security

Data Integrity

In encrypted emails, users have check value while sending or receiving the data. So, the security mechanism of data integrity match the check value of sender and receiver. If the check value matched of sender and receiver then the data will be decrypt otherwise it will not show the actual message.

Digital Signature

Digital signature is used to verify the data. It is the process to assure that the contents of message have not been changed or updated during transition. Additionally, when a server digitally sign a document, then it add one-hash encryption of message content using the pair of your public and private key. So, your client can still read it, but the process creates the signature that only decrypt with server’s public key. As, the client, using server’s public key, can then validate the sender as well as the integrity of message contents.

cyber security

Authentication Exchange

In security mechanism, authentication exchange is the process of verifying the actual sender and receiver. For Example, If we share the data through Bluetooth then it verifies the sender as well as receiver. The data is exchanged in the case of the address is matched and sender or receiver gives the permission to access the data.

Traffic Padding

Traffic Padding is the way of adding unwanted variables or data to confuse the hacker. When you are sharing sensitive data then add unwanted variables, if the hacker hacks the information then it would be useless for him and cannot understood by unauthorized person.

Routing controls

Routing control is the process of path the data at different routers to prevent the attacks. This mechanism is use to confuse the hacker when he attacks to steal the data and information or wants to improper changes.


Notarization is a three-part process that guarantees the parties of transactions that document is authentic and can be trusted. For Example, you pass the message to your friend through your other friend. It becomes three-part transaction within trusted and authentic people.

Please follow and like us:

Robotics-Artificial Intelligence

Posted Posted in Mobile Technology

Artificial intelligence
https://www.zaptox.com/artificial-intelligence/ (AI) is most best field in robotics.It’s certainly the most controversial.In modern world, robotics are giving life to the human world.

What are robots

Probably, man-made machine with our intellectual abilities.This include the ability to learn about anything.The ability to reason.The ability to use language.The ability to formulate original ideas.Robots are working now all over world.They achieve high place in AI.

Robotics is domain in artificial intelligence.It deals with study creating intelligent and efficient robots.Robots are artificial machines acting like human.

Robotics is a branch of AI.It is compose of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering,and Computer Science.It help in designing, construction,and application of robots.

Types of Robots

Consequently,It’s not easy to define robots.Probably,not easy to categorize them either.Most noteworthy,Each robot has its own unique features. Robots vary high in size, shape and capabilities.Still,many robots have a variety of features.Here are the categories to classify robots.

  • Aerospace: This is a broad category. It includes all sorts of flying robots.The Smart-Bird robotic seagull,Raven surveillance drone. Robots that operate in space,such as Mars rovers and NASA’s Robonaut.
  • Consumer: Consumer robots we can buy and use just for fun or help. Examples are the robot dog Aibo, the Roomba vacuum.
  • Disaster Response: These robots perform dangerous jobs searching for survivors in case of emergency.
  • Drones: A drones come in different sizes. Have different levels of autonomy.They are use for long-duration surveillance.
  • Exoskeletons: Robotic exoskeletons use for physical rehabilitation. Enables a paralyze patient walk again.

Certainly, Robots play a larger role in daily lives in future.In coming decades,robots gradually move out of the industrial and scientific worlds. In the same way that computers spread to the home in the 1980s.

Advantages of Robots

  • Helpful for elder people 
  • They make it easier for people in stress.And doesn’t have time to do there house hold.
  • If you aren’t able to do your house hold for any other reason.Like a emergency.You can rely on the robot to help you.


  • Therefore, for people that are healthy.They are able to do house hold.The robots can make them lazy and no need to do any work.
  • These robots are not made to do everything.
  • It might be dangerous to leave them alone and therefore you need to watch it.
Please follow and like us:

Process Scheduling In Operating System

Posted Posted in Mobile Technology

What is process scheduling

The procedure to schedule the process to execute on CPU is called process scheduling.

In a single processor system, one process can run at time.One process can run and other have to wait. Now, in multi-processor system, multiple process run at one time. The main purpose of multi-processing system is less the utilization of CPU.

Scheduling is basic function of operating system. CPU is important resource of OS. Most noteworthy, Scheduling use to know which process run first and which one after that.

Scheduling Queue

Queue is the structure for holding element. Consequently, Queue provide additional insertion, inspection and extraction for element. For scheduling different types of queues use.

Job Queue

The process enter into the computer system put into queue on the disk is job queue. Then, the process in the job queue wait for the call of CPU.

Ready Queue

The process from job queue is then send to ready queue for execution.The queue of process in the main memory is called ready queue. Probably, The ready queue is generally create in linked-list.

Waiting Queue

The process that are waiting for allocation of certain I/O devices for I/O operations are kept in waiting queue.


When multiple process are execute, the OS schedule the process.The part that schedules the process is called scheduler.

Types of Scheduler

Various types of scheduler may be use in OS.There are three types of schedulers.

  • Long term scheduling
  • Short term scheduling
  • Medium term scheduling

Long term scheduling

Probably, Long term scheduler is Job Scheduler. It select job user program from job pool on the disk and load into main memory .The long term scheduler control the number of process in memory .The long term scheduler also provide jobs. Such as, I/O bound and processor bound job. It decide which next process select for execution. For this purpose, the long term scheduler spend comparative a long time for making decision.

Short term scheduling

Short term scheduler retrieve a process from ready queue and allocate CPU to process .The process state is change from ready to running. If an interrupt or time-out occurs during execution, the scheduler places the running process back into the ready queue and makes it ready. Hence,A process may execute for only a few milliseconds, and then next process is select from ready queue for execution.

Medium term scheduler

The medium term schedule is also known as swap .In this type of schedule, swapper is used to exchange (or swap) processes between main memory and secondary disk.Probably, multiprocessing systems use swapping technique. Sometimes,a process that in job queue on disk is too long and cannot fit in memory. Consequently, then swapper removes another process from ready queue to make room for it .If a process is wait for complete of short term I/O operation, then it is not swapped out .

Please follow and like us:

Process States In Operating System

Posted Posted in Mobile Technology

A program in execution is called Process.The most central concept of operating system is the process. The term process was first introduce by Multics system in 1960s.

A program does not perform any task itself. However,when a program run on the computer it performs an action. Probably, the difference between process and program is process is active entity.While, program is static entity.

Applications of operating system

Process States

Processes in the operating system are in following states:

  • New : The process is create.
  • Ready: The process is waiting to be assign to a processor.
  • Running: Instructions are execute.
  • Waiting: The process is waiting for some event to occur(such as an I/O completion or reception of a signal).
  • Terminate: The process finish execution.
Process states

Transition between process states

Actually the major states of the process are Block, Running,Ready and Terminated. Here, New state only describe the creation of process.

Ready-Running State

In this transition, when a new process is select by CPU scheduler. Then the process is send to the ready queue. After that,it is send for execution towards CPU.

Running-Blocked State

This transition is made when a running process need some I/O operation.Then the process is send to block state.The process is also send to block state when there is a system call.

Running-Ready State

Here, this transition occurs when scheduler decides that the running process has use its time slice.Then the process is send to ready state again.

Running-Terminated State

In this, the program after execution is terminate.when the process is complete successfully then it is terminated from the queue.

Blocked-Ready State

In this the process after getting its requirement like I/O operation it is send to ready state.

Please follow and like us: